When I started producing backup worthy files (code, documents, projects, etc …), I realised the importance of backups after losing important files which happens to everybody. So I started my journey with backup solutions.
Backup generation 1: My first backup was simple directory copy operation, I copied my important directories to external floppy (then CD), and since it is manual operation I always forget about it and my backups was always old.
Backup Generation 2: Later when I moved to Linux I automated the backup process using a “cron” job, I backed up everything daily to a single file ‘backup.tar.gz’
Backup Generation 3: One day I noticed that I deleted a file by mistake … no problem I’ll restore it from backup … but it wasn’t there! I realised that I deleted the folder 2 days ago and the backup is overwritten daily! The solution is to backup daily to a different file name e.g. ‘backup-monday.tar.gz’ to have one week worth of backups.
Backup Generation 4: It happened again I deleted a file and had to restore from backup, this time I am prepared Unarchive ‘backup-moday.tar.gz’ and couldn’t find the file, try ‘backup-sunday.tar.gz’ not found either, finally I found it on ‘backup-saturday.tar.gz’, it took me a while but at least I found the file. But now I have another problem, all these backups are taking large amount of my disk space.
So far the problems I have are:
- Backups takes long time to complete: I have to copy all files and directories and compress them!
- Backups eat my disk space: complete backup for 7 days is too much to handle, I also want weekly and monthly backups but can’t afford to lose more disk space!
- Searching and restoring the backup is very slow process.
Then I found rsnapshot!
rsnapshot is backup tool that solve all my previous problems and more, this how it works:
Using rsync and hard links, it is possible to keep multiple, full backups instantly available. The disk space required is just a little more than the space of one full backup, plus incrementals.
To install rsnapshot from Ubuntu or Debian systems:
$ sudo aptitude install rsnapshot
rsnapshot isn’t a deamon (server or a service), it works periodically as a cron job, and by default it is disabled, to activate open the file
/etc/cron.d/rsnapshot and uncomment all jobs:
$ sudo vi /etc/cron.d/rsnapshot
# Uncomment all lines to activate rsnapshot
0 */4 * * * root /usr/bin/rsnapshot hourly
30 3 * * * root /usr/bin/rsnapshot daily
0 3 * * 1 root /usr/bin/rsnapshot weekly
30 2 1 * * root /usr/bin/rsnapshot monthly
The default configuration for rsnapshot is to backup the following local directories,
/usr/local. If you want to change it edit the file
$ sudo vi /etc/rsnapshot.conf
retain hourly 6
retain daily 7
retain weekly 4
retain monthly 3
backup /home/ localhost/
backup /etc/ localhost/
backup /usr/local/ localhost/
Where is My Data?
rsnapshot backup everything in the directory defined in
snapshot_root in the config file, by default it is
/var/cache/rsnapshot/, after running for few days you would have the following directory structure:
Of course the number of directories reflect the retain value in the configuration.
What I have now is a the following backups:
- Hourly backup: performed every 4 hours, and I keep the last 6 versions, i.e. 24 hours worth of backups.
- Daily backup: I keep the last 7 version to cover the whole week.
- Weekly backup: I keep the last 4 weeks to cover a whole month.
- Monthly backup: I keep the last 4 monthly backups.
To give you a perspective on how much rsnapshot disk space the
hourly.0 size is 7 GB,
hourly.1 size is only 120 MB
NOTE: You would need root permission to access the directory